For purposes of ensuring that employees and contractors have received required background checks and PREA training, how should agencies determine whether an individual “may have contact with” inmates/residents/detainees?
An individual may have contact with inmates/residents/detainees if, within the scope of that person’s official or unofficial duties or privileges, it is reasonably foreseeable that the person will have physical, visual, or auditory contact with a confined person over any period of time.
An individual may, at one point in time, not fall into the category above. However, a change in that person’s job duties, privileges, or policies and procedures may result in him or her having contact with inmates, residents, or detainees. If such a change occurs, the requirements for background checks and PREA training become immediately applicable to that individual.
“Contact” for purposes of the standards described below may include being in the same enclosure with an inmate/resident/detainee (e.g., dayroom, cell, courtyard, hallway, clinic, intake, etc.), being able to visually observe an inmate/resident/detainee (e.g., via live video feeds, one-way or two-way glass, etc.), or converse with an inmate/resident/detainee (e.g., through talking or shouting, via intercom, etc.).
Relevant PREA Standards
The PREA standards prohibit agencies from hiring or promoting anyone “who may have contact with inmates [or] enlist the services of any contractor who may have contact with inmates” if the individual has committed certain disqualifying acts. See standard 115.17(a)/117(a)/217(a)/317(a). In addition, the PREA standards require agencies to “consider any incidents of sexual harassment in determining whether to hire or promote anyone, or enlist the services of any contractor, who may have contact with inmates.” See standard 115.17(b)/117(b)/217(b)/317(b).
The PREA standards require agencies to conduct a “criminal background records check” and “contact prior institutional employers” before hiring new employees “who may have contact with inmates” and conduct a criminal background records check before enlisting the services of any contractor who may have contact with inmates.” See standard 115.17(c-d)/117(c-d)/217(c-d)/317(c-d). Agencies are also required to “either conduct criminal background records checks at least every five years of current employees and contractors who may have contact with inmates or have in place a system for otherwise capturing such information for current employees.” See standard 115.17(e)/117(e)/217(e)/317(e). In addition, agencies must inquire of “all applicants and employees who may have contact with inmates directly about” [enumerated proscribed conduct] in the course of certain triggering events. See standard 115.17(f)/117(f)/217(f)/317(f).
The PREA standards require agencies to “train all employees who may have contact with inmates” about certain enumerated topics related to sexual safety and to provide periodic “refresher training” and “refresher information.” See standard 115.31/131/231/331. The PREA standards also require agencies to “ensure that all volunteers and contractors who have contact with inmates” to receive training on certain enumerated topics.” See standard 115.32/132/232/332.