The National PREA Standards for lockups were written with the specific challenges faced by these facilities in mind. Explore the Standards below.
1. Prevention Planning
- § 115.111 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator
(a) An agency shall have a written policy mandating zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining the agency’s approach to preventing, detecting, and responding to such conduct.
(b) An agency shall employ or designate an upper-level, agency-wide PREA coordinator with sufficient time and authority to develop, implement, and oversee agency efforts to comply with the PREA standards in all of its lockups.
- § 115.112 Contracting with other entities for the confinement of detainees
(a) A law enforcement agency that contracts for the confinement of its lockup detainees in lockups operated by private agencies or other entities, including other government agencies, shall include in any new contract or contract renewal the entity’s obligation to adopt and comply with the PREA standards.
(b) Any new contract or contract renewal shall provide for agency contract monitoring to ensure that the contractor is complying with the PREA standards.
- § 115.113 Supervision and monitoring
(a) For each lockup, the agency shall develop and document a staffing plan that provides for adequate levels of staffing, and, where applicable, video monitoring, to protect detainees against sexual abuse. In calculating adequate staffing levels and determining the need for video monitoring, agencies shall take into consideration;
(1) The physical layout of each lockup;
(2) The composition of the detainee population;
(3) The prevalence of substantiated and unsubstantiated incidents of sexual abuse; and
(4) Any other relevant factors.
(b) In circumstances where the staffing plan is not complied with, the lockup shall document and justify all deviations from the plan.
(c) Whenever necessary, but no less frequently than once each year, the lockup shall assess, determine, and document whether adjustments are needed to:
(1) The staffing plan established pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section;
(2) Prevailing staffing patterns;
(3) The lockup’s deployment of video monitoring systems and other monitoring technologies; and
(4) The resources the lockup has available to commit to ensure adequate staffing levels.
(d) If vulnerable detainees are identified pursuant to the screening required by § 115.141, security staff shall provide such detainees with heightened protection, to include continuous direct sight and sound supervision, single-cell housing, or placement in a cell actively monitored on video by a staff member sufficiently proximate to intervene, unless no such option is determined to be feasible.
- § 115.114 Juveniles and youthful detainees
Juveniles and youthful detainees shall be held separately from adult detainees.
- § 115.115 Limits to cross-gender viewing and searches
(a) The lockup shall not conduct cross-gender strip searches or cross-gender visual body cavity searches (meaning a search of the anal or genital opening) except in exigent circumstances or when performed by medical practitioners.
(b) The lockup shall document all cross-gender strip searches and cross-gender visual body cavity searches.
(c) The lockup shall implement policies and procedures that enable detainees to shower, perform bodily functions, and change clothing without nonmedical staff of the opposite gender viewing their breasts, buttocks, or genitalia, except in exigent circumstances or when such viewing is incidental to routine cell checks. Such policies and procedures shall require staff of the opposite gender to announce their presence when entering an area where detainees are likely to be showering, performing bodily functions, or changing clothing.
(d) The lockup shall not search or physically examine a transgender or intersex detainee for the sole purpose of determining the detainee’s genital status. If the detainee’s genital status is unknown, it may be determined during conversations with the detainee, by reviewing medical records, or, if necessary, by learning that information as part of a broader medical examination conducted in private by a medical practitioner.
(e) The agency shall train law enforcement staff in how to conduct cross-gender pat-down searches, and searches of transgender and intersex detainees, in a professional and respectful manner, and in the least intrusive manner possible, consistent with security needs.
- § 115.116 Detainees with disabilities and detainees who are limited English proficient
(a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure that detainees with disabilities (including, for example, detainees who are deaf or hard of hearing, those who are blind or have low vision, or those who have intellectual, psychiatric, or speech disabilities), have an equal opportunity to participate in or benefit from all aspects of the agency’s efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment. Such steps shall include, when necessary to ensure effective communication with detainees who are deaf or hard of hearing, providing access to interpreters who can interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary. In addition, the agency shall ensure that written materials are provided in formats or through methods that ensure effective communication with detainees with disabilities, including detainees who have intellectual disabilities, limited reading skills, or who are blind or have low vision. An agency is not required to take actions that it can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a service, program, or activity, or in undue financial and administrative burdens, as those terms are used in regulations promulgated under title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act, 28 CFR 35.164.
(b) The agency shall take reasonable steps to ensure meaningful access to all aspects of the agency’s efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment to detainees who are limited English proficient, including steps to provide interpreters who can interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary.
(c) The agency shall not rely on detainee interpreters, detainee readers, or other types of detainee assistants except in limited circumstances where an extended delay in obtaining an effective interpreter could compromise the detainee’s safety, the performance of first-response duties under § 115.164, or the investigation of the detainee’s allegations.
- § 115.117 Hiring and promotion decisions
(a) The agency shall not hire or promote anyone who may have contact with detainees, and shall not enlist the services of any contractor who may have contact with detainees, who—
(1) Has engaged in sexual abuse in a prison, jail, lockup, community confinement facility, juvenile facility, or other institution (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1997);
(2) Has been convicted of engaging or attempting to engage in sexual activity in the community facilitated by force, overt or implied threats of force, or coercion, or if the victim did not consent or was unable to consent or refuse; or
(3) Has been civilly or administratively adjudicated to have engaged in the activity described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(b) The agency shall consider any incidents of sexual harassment in determining whether to hire or promote anyone, or to enlist the services of any contractor, who may have contact with detainees.
(c) Before hiring new employees who may have contact with detainees, the agency shall:
(1) Perform a criminal background records check; and
(2) Consistent with Federal, State, and local law, make its best efforts to contact all prior institutional employers for information on substantiated allegations of sexual abuse or any resignation during a pending investigation of an allegation of sexual abuse.
(d) The agency shall also perform a criminal background records check before enlisting the services of any contractor who may have contact with detainees.
(e) The agency shall either conduct criminal background records checks at least every five years of current employees and contractors who may have contact with detainees or have in place a system for otherwise capturing such information for current employees.
(f) The agency shall ask all applicants and employees who may have contact with detainees directly about previous misconduct described in paragraph (a) of this section in written applications or interviews for hiring or promotions and in any interviews or written self-evaluations conducted as part of reviews of current employees. The agency shall also impose upon employees a continuing affirmative duty to disclose any such misconduct.
(g) Material omissions regarding such misconduct, or the provision of materially false information, shall be grounds for termination.
(h) Unless prohibited by law, the agency shall provide information on substantiated allegations of sexual abuse or sexual harassment involving a former employee upon receiving a request from an institutional employer for whom such employee has applied to work.
- § 115.118 Upgrades to facilities and technologies
(a) When designing or acquiring any new lockup and in planning any substantial expansion or modification of existing lockups, the agency shall consider the effect of the design, acquisition, expansion, or modification upon the agency’s ability to protect detainees from sexual abuse.
(b) When installing or updating a video monitoring system, electronic surveillance system, or other monitoring technology, the agency shall consider how such technology may enhance the agency’s ability to protect detainees from sexual abuse.
2. Responsive Planning
- § 115.121 Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations
(a) To the extent the agency is responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse in its lockups, the agency shall follow a uniform evidence protocol that maximizes the potential for obtaining usable physical evidence for administrative proceedings and criminal prosecutions.
(b) The protocol shall be developmentally appropriate for youth where applicable, and, as appropriate, shall be adapted from or otherwise based on the most recent edition of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office on Violence Against Women publication, “A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, Adults/Adolescents,” or similarly comprehensive and authoritative protocols developed after 2011. As part of the training required in § 115.131, employees and volunteers who may have contact with lockup detainees shall receive basic training regarding how to detect and respond to victims of sexual abuse.
(c) The agency shall offer all victims of sexual abuse access to forensic medical examinations whether on-site or at an outside facility, without financial cost, where evidentiarily or medically appropriate. Such examinations shall be performed by Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners (SAFEs) or Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs) where possible. If SAFEs or SANEs cannot be made available, the examination can be performed by other qualified medical practitioners. The agency shall document its efforts to provide SAFEs or SANEs.
(d) If the detainee is transported for a forensic examination to an outside hospital that offers victim advocacy services, the detainee shall be permitted to use such services to the extent available, consistent with security needs.
(e) To the extent the agency itself is not responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse, the agency shall request that the investigating agency follow the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section.
(f) The requirements in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section shall also apply to:
(1) Any State entity outside of the agency that is responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse in lockups; and
(2) Any Department of Justice component that is responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse in lockups.
- § 115.122 Policies to ensure referrals of allegations for investigations
(a) The agency shall ensure that an administrative or criminal investigation is completed for all allegations of sexual abuse and sexual harassment.
(b) If another law enforcement agency is responsible for conducting investigations of allegations of sexual abuse or sexual harassment in its lockups, the agency shall have in place a policy to ensure that such allegations are referred for investigation to an agency with the legal authority to conduct criminal investigations, unless the allegation does not involve potentially criminal behavior. The agency shall publish such policy, including a description of responsibilities of both the agency and the investigating entity, on its website, or, if it does not have one, make available the policy through other means. The agency shall document all such referrals.
(c) Any State entity responsible for conducting administrative or criminal investigations of sexual abuse or sexual harassment in lockups shall have in place a policy governing the conduct of such investigations.
(d) Any Department of Justice component responsible for conducting administrative or criminal investigations of sexual abuse or sexual harassment in lockups shall have in place a policy governing the conduct of such investigations.
3. Training and Education
- § 115.131 Employee and volunteer training
(a) The agency shall train all employees and volunteers who may have contact with lockup detainees to be able to fulfill their responsibilities under agency sexual abuse prevention, detection, and response policies and procedures, including training on:
(1) The agency’s zero-tolerance policy and detainees’ right to be free from sexual abuse and sexual harassment;
(2) The dynamics of sexual abuse and harassment in confinement settings, including which detainees are most vulnerable in lockup settings;
(3) The right of detainees and employees to be free from retaliation for reporting sexual abuse or harassment;
(4) How to detect and respond to signs of threatened and actual abuse;
(5) How to communicate effectively and professionally with all detainees; and
(6) How to comply with relevant laws related to mandatory reporting of sexual abuse to outside authorities.
(b) All current employees and volunteers who may have contact with lockup detainees shall be trained within one year of the effective date of the PREA standards, and the agency shall provide annual refresher information to all such employees and volunteers to ensure that they know the agency’s current sexual abuse and sexual harassment policies and procedures.
(c) The agency shall document, through employee signature or electronic verification, that employees understand the training they have received.
- § 115.132 Detainee, contractor, and inmate worker notification of the agency’s zero-tolerance policy
(a) During the intake process, employees shall notify all detainees of the agency’s zero-tolerance policy regarding sexual abuse and sexual harassment.
(b) The agency shall ensure that, upon entering the lockup, contractors and any inmates who work in the lockup are informed of the agency’s zero-tolerance policy regarding sexual abuse and sexual harassment.
- § 115.133 Reserved
- § 115.134 Specialized training: Investigations
(a) In addition to the general training provided to all employees and volunteers pursuant to § 115.131, the agency shall ensure that, to the extent the agency itself conducts sexual abuse investigations, its investigators have received training in conducting such investigations in confinement settings.
(b) Specialized training shall include techniques for interviewing sexual abuse victims, proper use of Miranda and Garrity warnings, sexual abuse evidence collection in confinement settings, and the criteria and evidence required to substantiate a case for administrative action or prosecution referral.
(c) The agency shall maintain documentation that agency investigators have completed the required specialized training in conducting sexual abuse investigations.
(d) Any State entity or Department of Justice component that investigates sexual abuse in lockups shall provide such training to their agents and investigators who conduct such investigations.
- § 115.135 Reserved
4. Screening for Risk of Sexual Victimization and Abusiveness
- § 115.141 Screening for risk of victimization and abusiveness
(a) In lockups that are not utilized to house detainees overnight, before placing any detainees together in a holding cell, staff shall consider whether, based on the information before them, a detainee may be at a high risk of being sexually abused and, when appropriate, shall take necessary steps to mitigate any such danger to the detainee.
(b) In lockups that are utilized to house detainees overnight, all detainees shall be screened to assess their risk of being sexually abused by other detainees or sexually abusive toward other detainees.
(c) In lockups described in paragraph (b) of this section, staff shall ask the detainee about his or her own perception of vulnerability.
(d) The screening process in the lockups described in paragraph (b) of this section shall also consider, to the extent that the information is available, the following criteria to screen detainees for risk of sexual victimization:
(1) Whether the detainee has a mental, physical, or developmental disability;
(2) The age of the detainee;
(3) The physical build and appearance of the detainee;
(4) Whether the detainee has previously been incarcerated; and
(5) The nature of the detainee’s alleged offense and criminal history.
- § 115.142 Reserved
- § 115.143 Reserved
- § 115.151 Detainee reporting
(a) The agency shall provide multiple ways for detainees to privately report sexual abuse and sexual harassment, retaliation by other detainees or staff for reporting sexual abuse and sexual harassment, and staff neglect or violation of responsibilities that may have contributed to such incidents.
(b) The agency shall also inform detainees of at least one way to report abuse or harassment to a public or private entity or office that is not part of the agency, and that is able to receive and immediately forward detainee reports of sexual abuse and sexual harassment to agency officials, allowing the detainee to remain anonymous upon request.
(c) Staff shall accept reports made verbally, in writing, anonymously, and from third parties and promptly document any verbal reports.
(d) The agency shall provide a method for staff to privately report sexual abuse and sexual harassment of detainees.
- § 115.152 Reserved
- § 115.153 Reserved
- § 115.154 Third-party reporting
The agency shall establish a method to receive third-party reports of sexual abuse and sexual harassment in its lockups and shall distribute publicly information on how to report sexual abuse and sexual harassment on behalf of a detainee.
6. Official Response Following an Inmate, Detainee, or Resident Report
- § 115.161 Staff and agency reporting duties
(a) The agency shall require all staff to report immediately and according to agency policy any knowledge, suspicion, or information regarding an incident of sexual abuse or sexual harassment that occurred in an agency lockup; retaliation against detainees or staff who reported such an incident; and any staff neglect or violation of responsibilities that may have contributed to an incident or retaliation.
(b) Apart from reporting to designated supervisors or officials, staff shall not reveal any information related to a sexual abuse report to anyone other than to the extent necessary, as specified in agency policy, to make treatment and investigation decisions.
(c) If the alleged victim is under the age of 18 or considered a vulnerable adult under a State or local vulnerable persons statute, the agency shall report the allegation to the designated State or local services agency under applicable mandatory reporting laws.
(d) The agency shall report all allegations of sexual abuse, including third-party and anonymous reports, to the agency’s designated investigators.
- § 115.162 Agency protection duties
When an agency learns that a detainee is subject to a substantial risk of imminent sexual abuse, it shall take immediate action to protect the detainee.
- § 115.163 Reporting to other confinement facilities
(a) Upon receiving an allegation that a detainee was sexually abused while confined at another facility, the head of the facility that received the allegation shall notify the head of the facility or appropriate office of the agency where the alleged abuse occurred.
(b) Such notification shall be provided as soon as possible, but no later than 72 hours after receiving the allegation.
(c) The agency shall document that it has provided such notification.
(d) The facility head or agency office that receives such notification shall ensure that the allegation is investigated in accordance with these standards.
- § 115.164 Staff first responder duties
(a) Upon learning of an allegation that a detainee was sexually abused, the first law enforcement staff member to respond to the report shall be required to:
(1) Separate the alleged victim and abuser;
(2) Preserve and protect any crime scene until appropriate steps can be taken to collect any evidence;
(3) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still allows for the collection of physical evidence, request that the alleged victim not take any actions that could destroy physical evidence, including, as appropriate, washing, brushing teeth, changing clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and
(4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still allows for the collection of physical evidence, ensure that the alleged abuser does not take any actions that could destroy physical evidence, including, as appropriate, washing, brushing teeth, changing clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating.
(b) If the first staff responder is not a law enforcement staff member, the responder shall be required to request that the alleged victim not take any actions that could destroy physical evidence and then notify law enforcement staff.
- § 115.165 Coordinated response
(a) The agency shall develop a written institutional plan to coordinate actions taken in response to a lockup incident of sexual abuse, among staff first responders, medical and mental health practitioners, investigators, and agency leadership.
(b) If a victim is transferred from the lockup to a jail, prison, or medical facility, the agency shall, as permitted by law, inform the receiving facility of the incident and the victim’s potential need for medical or social services, unless the victim requests otherwise.
- § 115.166 Preservation of ability to protect detainees from contact with abusers
(a) Neither the agency nor any other governmental entity responsible for collective bargaining on the agency’s behalf shall enter into or renew any collective bargaining agreement or other agreement that limits the agency’s ability to remove alleged staff sexual abusers from contact with detainees pending the outcome of an investigation or of a determination of whether and to what extent discipline is warranted.
(b) Nothing in this standard shall restrict the entering into or renewal of agreements that govern:
(1) The conduct of the disciplinary process, as long as such agreements are not inconsistent with the provisions of §§ 115.172 and 115.176; or
(2) Whether a no-contact assignment that is imposed pending the outcome of an investigation shall be expunged from or retained in the staff member’s personnel file following a determination that the allegation of sexual abuse is not substantiated.
- § 115.167 Agency protection against retaliation
(a) The agency shall establish a policy to protect all detainees and staff who report sexual abuse or sexual harassment or cooperate with sexual abuse or sexual harassment investigations from retaliation by other detainees or staff, and shall designate which staff members or departments are charged with monitoring retaliation.
(b) The agency shall employ multiple protection measures, such as housing changes or transfers for detainee victims or abusers, removal of alleged staff or detainee abusers from contact with victims, and emotional support services for staff who fear retaliation for reporting sexual abuse or sexual harassment or for cooperating with investigations.
(c) The agency shall monitor the conduct and treatment of detainees or staff who have reported sexual abuse and of detainees who were reported to have suffered sexual abuse, and shall act promptly to remedy any such retaliation.
(d) If any other individual who cooperates with an investigation expresses a fear of retaliation, the agency shall take appropriate measures to protect that individual against retaliation.
(e) An agency’s obligation to monitor shall terminate if the agency determines that the allegation is unfounded.
- § 115.168 Reserved
- § 115.171 Criminal and administrative agency investigations
(a) When the agency conducts its own investigations into allegations of sexual abuse and sexual harassment, it shall do so promptly, thoroughly, and objectively for all allegations, including third-party and anonymous reports.
(b) Where sexual abuse is alleged, the agency shall use investigators who have received special training in sexual abuse investigations pursuant to § 115.134.
(c) Investigators shall gather and preserve direct and circumstantial evidence, including any available physical and DNA evidence and any available electronic monitoring data; shall interview alleged victims, suspected perpetrators, and witnesses; and shall review prior complaints and reports of sexual abuse involving the suspected perpetrator.
(d) When the quality of evidence appears to support criminal prosecution, the agency shall conduct compelled interviews only after consulting with prosecutors as to whether compelled interviews may be an obstacle for subsequent criminal prosecution.
(e) The credibility of an alleged victim, suspect, or witness shall be assessed on an individual basis and shall not be determined by the person’s status as detainee or staff. No agency shall require a detainee who alleges sexual abuse to submit to a polygraph examination or other truth-telling device as a condition for proceeding with the investigation of such an allegation.
(f) Administrative investigations:
(1) Shall include an effort to determine whether staff actions or failures to act contributed to the abuse; and
(2) Shall be documented in written reports that include a description of the physical and testimonial evidence, the reasoning behind credibility assessments, and investigative facts and findings.
(g) Criminal investigations shall be documented in a written report that contains a thorough description of physical, testimonial, and documentary evidence and attaches copies of all documentary evidence where feasible.
(h) Substantiated allegations of conduct that appears to be criminal shall be referred for prosecution.
(i) The agency shall retain all written reports referenced in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section for as long as the alleged abuser is incarcerated or employed by the agency, plus five years.
(j) The departure of the alleged abuser or victim from the employment or control of the lockup or agency shall not provide a basis for terminating an investigation.
(k) Any State entity or Department of Justice component that conducts such investigations shall do so pursuant to the above requirements.
(l) When outside agencies investigate sexual abuse, the agency shall cooperate with outside investigators and shall endeavor to remain informed about the progress of the investigation.
- § 115.172 Evidentiary standard for administrative investigations
The agency shall impose no standard higher than a preponderance of the evidence in determining whether allegations of sexual abuse or sexual harassment are substantiated.
- § 115.173 Reserved
- § 115.176 Disciplinary sanctions for staff
(a) Staff shall be subject to disciplinary sanctions up to and including termination for violating agency sexual abuse or sexual harassment policies.
(b) Termination shall be the presumptive disciplinary sanction for staff who have engaged in sexual abuse.
(c) Disciplinary sanctions for violations of agency policies relating to sexual abuse or sexual harassment (other than actually engaging in sexual abuse) shall be commensurate with the nature and circumstances of the acts committed, the staff member’s disciplinary history, and the sanctions imposed for comparable offenses by other staff with similar histories.
(d) All terminations for violations of agency sexual abuse or sexual harassment policies, or resignations by staff who would have been terminated if not for their resignation, shall be reported to law enforcement agencies, unless the activity was clearly not criminal, and to any relevant licensing bodies.
- § 115.177 Corrective action for contractors and volunteers
(a) Any contractor or volunteer who engages in sexual abuse shall be prohibited from contact with detainees and shall be reported to law enforcement agencies, unless the activity was clearly not criminal, and to relevant licensing bodies.
(b) The facility shall take appropriate remedial measures, and shall consider whether to prohibit further contact with detainees, in the case of any other violation of agency sexual abuse or sexual harassment policies by a contractor or volunteer.
- § 115.178 Referrals for prosecution for detainee-on-detainee sexual abuse
(a) When there is probable cause to believe that a detainee sexually abused another detainee in a lockup, the agency shall refer the matter to the appropriate prosecuting authority.
(b) To the extent the agency itself is not responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse, the agency shall inform the investigating entity of this policy.
(c) Any State entity or Department of Justice component that is responsible for investigating allegations of sexual abuse in lockups shall be subject to this requirement.
9. Medical and Mental Care
- § 115.181 Reserved
- § 115.182 Access to emergency medical services
(a) Detainee victims of sexual abuse in lockups shall receive timely, unimpeded access to emergency medical treatment.
(b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without financial cost and regardless of whether the victim names the abuser or cooperates with any investigation arising out of the incident.
- § 115.183 Reserved
10. Data Collection and Review
- § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews
(a) The lockup shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every substantiated and unsubstantiated sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been substantiated, unless the allegation has been determined to be unfounded.
(b) Such review shall ordinarily occur within 30 days of the conclusion of the investigation.
(c) The review team shall include upper-level management officials, with input from line supervisors and investigators.
(d) The review team shall:
(1) Consider whether the allegation or investigation indicates a need to change policy or practice to better prevent, detect, or respond to sexual abuse;
(2) Consider whether the incident or allegation was motivated by race; ethnicity; gender identity; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex identification, status, or perceived status; or gang affiliation; or was motivated or otherwise caused by other group dynamics at the lockup;
(3) Examine the area in the lockup where the incident allegedly occurred to assess whether physical barriers in the area may enable abuse;
(4) Assess the adequacy of staffing levels in that area during different shifts;
(5) Assess whether monitoring technology should be deployed or augmented to supplement supervision by staff; and
(6) Prepare a report of its findings, including but not necessarily limited to determinations made pursuant to paragraphs (d)(1)-(d)(5) of this section, and any recommendations for improvement and submit such report to the lockup head and agency PREA coordinator.
(e) The lockup shall implement the recommendations for improvement, or shall document its reasons for not doing so.
- § 115.187 Data collection
(a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using a standardized instrument and set of definitions.
(b) The agency shall aggregate the incident-based sexual abuse data at least annually.
(c) The incident-based data collected shall include, at a minimum, the data necessary to answer all questions from the most recent version of the Local Jail Jurisdictions Survey of Sexual Violence conducted by the Department of Justice, or any subsequent form developed by the Department of Justice and designated for lockups.
(d) The agency shall maintain, review, and collect data as needed from all available incident-based documents, including reports, investigation files, and sexual abuse incident reviews.
(e) The agency also shall obtain incident-based and aggregated data from any private agency with which it contracts for the confinement of its detainees.
(f) Upon request, the agency shall provide all such data from the previous calendar year to the Department of Justice no later than June 30.
- § 115.188 Data review for corrective action
(a) The agency shall review data collected and aggregated pursuant to § 115.187 in order to assess and improve the effectiveness of its sexual abuse prevention, detection, and response policies, practices, and training, including:
(1) Identifying problem areas;
(2) Taking corrective action on an ongoing basis; and
(3) Preparing an annual report of its findings and corrective actions for each lockup, as well as the agency as a whole.
(b) Such report shall include a comparison of the current year’s data and corrective actions with those from prior years and shall provide an assessment of the agency’s progress in addressing sexual abuse.
(c) The agency’s report shall be approved by the agency head and made readily available to the public through its website or, if it does not have one, through other means.
(d) The agency may redact specific material from the reports when publication would present a clear and specific threat to the safety and security of a lockup, but must indicate the nature of the material redacted.
- § 115.189 Data storage, publication, and destruction
(a) The agency shall ensure that data collected pursuant to § 115.187 are securely retained.
(b) The agency shall make all aggregated sexual abuse data, from lockups under its direct control and any private agencies with which it contracts, readily available to the public at least annually through its website or, if it does not have one, through other means.
(c) Before making aggregated sexual abuse data publicly available, the agency shall remove all personal identifiers.
(d) The agency shall maintain sexual abuse data collected pursuant to § 115.187 for at least 10 years after the date of the initial collection unless Federal, State, or local law requires otherwise.
11. Audits and State Compliance
- § 115.401 Frequency and scope of audits
(a) During the three-year period starting on August 20, 2013, and during each three-year period thereafter, the agency shall ensure that each facility operated by the agency, or by a private organization on behalf of the agency, is audited at least once.
(b) During each one-year period starting on August 20, 2013, the agency shall ensure that at least one-third of each facility type operated by the agency, or by a private organization on behalf of the agency, is audited.
(c) The Department of Justice may send a recommendation to an agency for an expedited audit if the Department has reason to believe that a particular facility may be experiencing problems relating to sexual abuse. The recommendation may also include referrals to resources that may assist the agency with PREA-related issues.
(d) The Department of Justice shall develop and issue an audit instrument that will provide guidance on the conduct of and contents of the audit.
(e) The agency shall bear the burden of demonstrating compliance with the standards.
(f) The auditor shall review all relevant agency-wide policies, procedures, reports, internal and external audits, and accreditations for each facility type.
(g) The audits shall review, at a minimum, a sampling of relevant documents and other records and information for the most recent one-year period.
(h) The auditor shall have access to, and shall observe, all areas of the audited facilities.
(i) The auditor shall be permitted to request and receive copies of any relevant documents (including electronically stored information).
(j) The auditor shall retain and preserve all documentation (including, e.g., video tapes and interview notes) relied upon in making audit determinations. Such documentation shall be provided to the Department of Justice upon request.
(k) The auditor shall interview a representative sample of inmates, residents, and detainees, and of staff, supervisors, and administrators.
(l) The auditor shall review a sampling of any available videotapes and other electronically available data (e.g., Watchtour) that may be relevant to the provisions being audited.
(m) The auditor shall be permitted to conduct private interviews with inmates, residents, and detainees.
(n) Inmates, residents, and detainees shall be permitted to send confidential information or correspondence to the auditor in the same manner as if they were communicating with legal counsel.
(o) Auditors shall attempt to communicate with community-based or victim advocates who may have insight into relevant conditions in the facility.
- § 115.402 Auditor qualifications
(a) An audit shall be conducted by:
(1) A member of a correctional monitoring body that is not part of, or under the authority of, the agency (but may be part of, or authorized by, the relevant State or local government);
(2) A member of an auditing entity such as an inspector general’s or ombudsperson’s office that is external to the agency; or
(3) Other outside individuals with relevant experience.
(b) All auditors shall be certified by the Department of Justice. The Department of Justice shall develop and issue procedures regarding the certification process, which shall include training requirements.
(c) No audit may be conducted by an auditor who has received financial compensation from the agency being audited (except for compensation received for conducting prior PREA audits) within the three years prior to the agency’s retention of the auditor.
(d) The agency shall not employ, contract with, or otherwise financially compensate the auditor for three years subsequent to the agency’s retention of the auditor, with the exception of contracting for subsequent PREA audits.
- § 115.403 Audit contents and findings
(a) Each audit shall include a certification by the auditor that no conflict of interest exists with respect to his or her ability to conduct an audit of the agency under review.
(b) Audit reports shall state whether agency-wide policies and procedures comply with relevant PREA standards.
(c) For each PREA standard, the auditor shall determine whether the audited facility reaches one of the following findings: Exceeds Standard (substantially exceeds requirement of standard); Meets Standard (substantial compliance; complies in all material ways with the standard for the relevant review period); Does Not Meet Standard (requires corrective action). The audit summary shall indicate, among other things, the number of provisions the facility has achieved at each grade level.
(d) Audit reports shall describe the methodology, sampling sizes, and basis for the auditor’s conclusions with regard to each standard provision for each audited facility, and shall include recommendations for any required corrective action.
(e) Auditors shall redact any personally identifiable inmate or staff information from their reports, but shall provide such information to the agency upon request, and may provide such information to the Department of Justice.
(f) The agency shall ensure that the auditor’s final report is published on the agency’s website if it has one, or is otherwise made readily available to the public.
- § 115.404 Audit corrective action plan
(a) A finding of “Does Not Meet Standard” with one or more standards shall trigger a 180-day corrective action period.
(b) The auditor and the agency shall jointly develop a corrective action plan to achieve compliance.
(c) The auditor shall take necessary and appropriate steps to verify implementation of the corrective action plan, such as reviewing updated policies and procedures or re-inspecting portions of a facility.
(d) After the 180-day corrective action period ends, the auditor shall issue a final determination as to whether the facility has achieved compliance with those standards requiring corrective action.
(e) If the agency does not achieve compliance with each standard, it may (at its discretion and cost) request a subsequent audit once it believes that is has achieved compliance.
- § 115.405 Audit appeals
(a) An agency may lodge an appeal with the Department of Justice regarding any specific audit finding that it believes to be incorrect. Such appeal must be lodged within 90 days of the auditor’s final determination.
(b) If the Department determines that the agency has stated good cause for a re-evaluation, the agency may commission a re-audit by an auditor mutually agreed upon by the Department and the agency. The agency shall bear the costs of this re-audit.
(c) The findings of the re-audit shall be considered final.
- § 115.193 Audits of standards
The agency shall conduct audits pursuant to §§ 115.401-405. Audits need not be conducted of individual lockups that are not utilized to house detainees overnight.
12. State Compliance
- § 115.501 State determination and certification of full compliance
(a) In determining pursuant to 34 U.S.C. 30307(c)(2) whether the State is in full compliance with the PREA standards, the Governor shall consider the results of the most recent agency audits.
(b) The Governor’s certification shall apply to all facilities in the State under the operational control of the State’s executive branch, including facilities operated by private entities on behalf of the State’s executive branch.
- § 115.5 General definitions
For purposes of this part, the term—
Agency means the unit of a State, local, corporate, or nonprofit authority, or of the Department of Justice, with direct responsibility for the operation of any facility that confines inmates, detainees, or residents, including the implementation of policy as set by the governing, corporate, or nonprofit authority.
Agency head means the principal official of an agency.
Community confinement facility means a community treatment center, halfway house, restitution center, mental health facility, alcohol or drug rehabilitation center, or other community correctional facility (including residential re-entry centers), other than a juvenile facility, in which individuals reside as part of a term of imprisonment or as a condition of pre-trial release or post-release supervision, while participating in gainful employment, employment search efforts, community service, vocational training, treatment, educational programs, or similar facility-approved programs during nonresidential hours.
Contractor means a person who provides services on a recurring basis pursuant to a contractual agreement with the agency.
Detainee means any person detained in a lockup, regardless of adjudication status.
Direct staff supervision means that security staff are in the same room with, and within reasonable hearing distance of, the resident or inmate.
Employee means a person who works directly for the agency or facility.
Exigent circumstances means any set of temporary and unforeseen circumstances that require immediate action in order to combat a threat to the security or institutional order of a facility.
Facility means a place, institution, building (or part thereof), set of buildings, structure, or area (whether or not enclosing a building or set of buildings) that is used by an agency for the confinement of individuals.
Facility head means the principal official of a facility.
Full compliance means compliance with all material requirements of each standard except for de minimis violations, or discrete and temporary violations during otherwise sustained periods of compliance.
Gender nonconforming means a person whose appearance or manner does not conform to traditional societal gender expectations.
Inmate means any person incarcerated or detained in a prison or jail.
Intersex means a person whose sexual or reproductive anatomy or chromosomal pattern does not seem to fit typical definitions of male or female. Intersex medical conditions are sometimes referred to as disorders of sex development.
Jail means a confinement facility of a Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency whose primary use is to hold persons pending adjudication of criminal charges, persons committed to confinement after adjudication of criminal charges for sentences of one year or less, or persons adjudicated guilty who are awaiting transfer to a correctional facility.
Juvenile means any person under the age of 18, unless under adult court supervision and confined or detained in a prison or jail.
Juvenile facility means a facility primarily used for the confinement of juveniles pursuant to the juvenile justice system or criminal justice system.
Law enforcement staff means employees responsible for the supervision and control of detainees in lockups.
Lockup means a facility that contains holding cells, cell blocks, or other secure enclosures that are:
(1) Under the control of a law enforcement, court, or custodial officer; and
(2) Primarily used for the temporary confinement of individuals who have recently been arrested, detained, or are being transferred to or from a court, jail, prison, or other agency.
Medical practitioner means a health professional who, by virtue of education, credentials, and experience, is permitted by law to evaluate and care for patients within the scope of his or her professional practice. A “qualified medical practitioner” refers to such a professional who has also successfully completed specialized training for treating sexual abuse victims.
Mental health practitioner means a mental health professional who, by virtue of education, credentials, and experience, is permitted by law to evaluate and care for patients within the scope of his or her professional practice. A “qualified mental health practitioner” refers to such a professional who has also successfully completed specialized training for treating sexual abuse victims.
Pat-down search means a running of the hands over the clothed body of an inmate, detainee, or resident by an employee to determine whether the individual possesses contraband.
Prison means an institution under Federal or State jurisdiction whose primary use is for the confinement of individuals convicted of a serious crime, usually in excess of one year in length, or a felony.
Resident means any person confined or detained in a juvenile facility or in a community confinement facility.
Secure juvenile facility means a juvenile facility in which the movements and activities of individual residents may be restricted or subject to control through the use of physical barriers or intensive staff supervision. A facility that allows residents access to the community to achieve treatment or correctional objectives, such as through educational or employment programs, typically will not be considered to be a secure juvenile facility.
Security staff means employees primarily responsible for the supervision and control of inmates, detainees, or residents in housing units, recreational areas, dining areas, and other program areas of the facility.
Staff means employees.
Strip search means a search that requires a person to remove or arrange some or all clothing so as to permit a visual inspection of the person’s breasts, buttocks, or genitalia.
Transgender means a person whose gender identity (i.e., internal sense of feeling male or female) is different from the person’s assigned sex at birth.
Substantiated allegation means an allegation that was investigated and determined to have occurred.
Unfounded allegation means an allegation that was investigated and determined not to have occurred.
Unsubstantiated allegation means an allegation that was investigated and the investigation produced insufficient evidence to make a final determination as to whether or not the event occurred.
Volunteer means an individual who donates time and effort on a recurring basis to enhance the activities and programs of the agency.
Youthful inmate means any person under the age of 18 who is under adult court supervision and incarcerated or detained in a prison or jail.
Youthful detainee means any person under the age of 18 who is under adult court supervision and detained in a lockup.
- § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse
For purposes of this part, the term—
Sexual abuse includes—
(1) Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by another inmate, detainee, or resident; and
(2) Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer.
Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by another inmate, detainee, or resident includes any of the following acts, if the victim does not consent, is coerced into such act by overt or implied threats of violence, or is unable to consent or refuse:
(1) Contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, including penetration, however slight;
(2) Contact between the mouth and the penis, vulva, or anus;
(3) Penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person, however slight, by a hand, finger, object, or other instrument; and
(4) Any other intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or the buttocks of another person, excluding contact incidental to a physical altercation.
Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer includes any of the following acts, with or without consent of the inmate, detainee, or resident:
(1) Contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, including penetration, however slight;
(2) Contact between the mouth and the penis, vulva, or anus;
(3) Contact between the mouth and any body part where the staff member, contractor, or volunteer has the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire;
(4) Penetration of the anal or genital opening, however slight, by a hand, finger, object, or other instrument, that is unrelated to official duties or where the staff member, contractor, or volunteer has the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire;
(5) Any other intentional contact, either directly or through the clothing, of or with the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or the buttocks, that is unrelated to official duties or where the staff member, contractor, or volunteer has the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire;
(6) Any attempt, threat, or request by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer to engage in the activities described in paragraphs (1)-(5) of this section;
(7) Any display by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer of his or her uncovered genitalia, buttocks, or breast in the presence of an inmate, detainee, or resident, and
(8) Voyeurism by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer.
Voyeurism by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer means an invasion of privacy of an inmate, detainee, or resident by staff for reasons unrelated to official duties, such as peering at an inmate who is using a toilet in his or her cell to perform bodily functions; requiring an inmate to expose his or her buttocks, genitals, or breasts; or taking images of all or part of an inmate’s naked body or of an inmate performing bodily functions.
Sexual harassment includes—
(1) Repeated and unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or verbal comments, gestures, or actions of a derogatory or offensive sexual nature by one inmate, detainee, or resident directed toward another; and
(2) Repeated verbal comments or gestures of a sexual nature to an inmate, detainee, or resident by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer, including demeaning references to gender, sexually suggestive or derogatory comments about body or clothing, or obscene language or gestures.