This report outlines the direct supervision system of correctional management and design was first used in adult detention facilities in 1974. Since then, it has been adopted by hundreds of prisons and jails and accepted as best practice by professional associations and accrediting organizations in corrections. Research assessing its success has taken the form of detailed case studies, comparisons among different facilities, and comparisons within the same facility or system over time. Overall, reports have been consistent in finding that direct supervision has led to reduced assaults and other serious incidents, and lower costs. Findings on the quality of working environments for staff are positive but mixed. Methodological issues and recommendations for future research are considered.
The Internal Audit Division is responsible for examining and evaluating the adequacy of the agency's system of internal controls and the quality of agency performance in carrying out assigned responsibilities.
The scope of these audits involves reliability of information systems; compliance with stature, board policy, agency policy or operating policy/procedures; safeguarding of agency assets; economical and efficient use of agency resources; and accomplishment of established objectives and goals for agency operations or programs.
The Internal Audit Division also provides assistance to management through the review of draft agency policies, service on agency committees, advice to agency management, completion of special projects based on management requests, participation in System Development Life Cycle, and participation in agency re-engineering efforts.
This article contains an overview of the accreditation process for agencies seeking to gain accreditation through the American Correctional Association and the Commission on Accreditation.
The Texas legislature considered creating an Office of the Inspector General for juvenile detention facilities after allegations of sexual abuse at Texas youth detention centers.
This article debates the efficacy of such offices as they function in other areas of jurisdiction in the State of Texas.
Map of applicable regions.
Hearing transcripts regarding medical and mental health care, community corrections, and oversight related to the prevention of and response to inmate sexual assault. Points of entry are: full transcript; opening remarks; personal accounts; response and treatment—caring for sexual assault victims in correctional and detention facilities; confidentiality and reporting—medical ethics, victim safety, and facility security; sexual violence and community corrections—the special considerations of community-based settings; and best practices and emerging trends—the community corrections field’s response to the Prison Rape Elimination Act. This article contains testimony specifically about the State of North Carolina.
This report addresses the U.S. government's failure to comply with its obligations under the Convention to prevent and punish acts of excessive force, rape, sexual abuse, and racial profiling committed by law enforcement officers against people of color. While the U.S. government references various law enforcement training programs in its report, it is clear that that these are ineffective in addressing and deterring violations of the Convention by law enforcement officers. This report will also examine the failure of existing legislative and judicial remedies cited by the U.S. as evidence of its compliance with the Convention to afford victims of racially discriminatory law enforcement practices vindication of their human rights, financial compensation, or systemic change. It concludes by offering concrete recommendations to bring the U.S. into compliance with the Convention.
This document is a speech given before the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission by Doug Dretke; Executive Director of the Correctional Management Institute of Texas (CMIT) at Sam Houston State University. Dretke posits that prisons must be subject to internal and external controls. These should include inspections of facilities, intradepartmental evaluations, offender grievances, internal ombudsman programs, and operational review programs. These factors are key to having a working knowledge of prison conditions, and in turn preventing sexual assault inside prisons.
Research has shown that many of the youth incarcerated with the Texas Youth Commission (TYC) were physically abused by employees, and the rate of such occurrences has drastically increased in recent years. Turnover rates and inadequate training of employees at TYC are major contributors to the increasing abuse. Recruiting and retaining staff have been major challenges for TYC. The lack of a criminal investigation division within TYC is another contributor to the increasing rate of violence, both to youth and staff. Lowering the ratio of youth to staff, increasing the amount of training for employees, and providing independent investigations of alleged crimes could reduce the rate of abuse and violence occurring at TYC facilities.
As proposed, S.B. 103 requires the TYC to provide 300 hours of training to guards before they begin their duties at facilities, and to maintain a ratio at least one guard for every 12 youth committed to the facility. S.B. 103 requires TYC to establish an Office of the Inspector General for the purpose of investigating criminal acts among TYC youth, guards, and other TYC employees, and reporting the results of any investigation to the TYC Board. S.B. 103 prohibits TYC from assigning a child younger than 15 years old to the same dormitory as a youth at least 17 years of age. S.B. 103 requires the Texas Rangers to make monthly unannounced visit to facilities and to submit reports to the Texas Sunset Commission for inclusion in TYC’s Sunset review evaluation.
The Center for Society, Law and Justice (CSLJ), with the support of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, provided an assessment of the status of efforts to manage law enforcement integrity in the mid-2000s. The report explores expert and practitioner opinion on the complex issues involved in defining and promoting integrity among police officers and reviews then-current practices in screening and training recruits. It is intended to promote a fresh look at ideas and practices among policy makers and executives to encourage new and better approaches to enhance integrity in police organizations.
An examination of transparency in custodial systems as a means of protecting against abuse and ensuring safety. The article highlights the distinguishing features of the Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment’s mechanisms—legal mandate, independence, expertise, impartiality, powers of access, and powers of enforcement—within the important context of shared values and principles, which have slowly been developing in Europe since the Second World War.
Metzenbaum sets forth five building blocks—tools and techniques for constructing a good measurement system for an organization. She describes six practices that leaders need to use to make appropriately designed systems work properly. This report will be of interest to policy makers as well as managers. Policy makers need to understand the implications of the systems they design, such as performance-based pay tied to organizational targets. Managers need to understand that what they choose to do or not to do also has implications for the successful use of performance measures. Metzenbaum emphasizes the importance of constructive feedback and the use of constant back-and-forth discussions in improving performance based on metrics.
This analysis by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) evaluates the Federal Bureau of Prisons' (BOP) response to the recommendations contained in the OIG's report entitled "Supplemental Report on September 11 Detainees' Allegations of Abuse at the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn, New York." (MDC Report). The OIG supplemental report, issued on December 18, 2003, examined allegations that some correctional officers in the Metropolitan Detention Center (MDC) in Brooklyn, New York, physically and verbally abused aliens who were detained on immigration charges and held in connection with the investigation of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In our MDC Report, we described the evidence of that abuse, concluded that the evidence substantiated allegations of abuse, and recommended that the BOP discipline certain MDC correctional officers.
In our report, we also described systemic problems in how the MDC handled the September 11 detainees. We made a series of recommendations to the BOP to address those systemic problems, which we concluded would improve the BOP's ability to prepare for and respond to future emergencies involving detainees, as well as improve its routine handling of inmates.
In 1972, a Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) “inmate David Ruiz filed a hand-written lawsuit against [TDC], which was destined to become the most far-reaching prison conditions litigation in American history.” TDC was largely unaccountable; it was invisible to the general public and even to the rest of the state government. One of the many profound changes to TDC's successor agency, as a result of the Ruiz litigation, is a high degree of visibility, accountability, and concomitantly, fairly sophisticated methods of internal monitoring for accountability. This article is intended to highlight those methods, demonstrating how one professionally operated prison system detects and addresses problems and risks.
Although quite often unknown to the American public, inmate abuse is a common problem in prisons and jails across the country. Because it is difficult to penetrate prison walls to produce evidence of abusive practices, and because it is rare for a prison guard to defy his/her fellow officers and speak out against wrongful conduct, society is generally unaware of how American inmates are handled. An informed public, however, would be disappointed to know that when inmates are mistreated, the possibility of redress is limited and guards are often not held accountable. Whereas inmates in the past could file civil actions in federal district court to seek remedy, a United States Supreme Court decision in 2002 interpreted the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) as requiring an inmate alleging abusive treatment to exhaust his administrative remedies in the prison facility before bringing an action in district court.
The movement to create citizen oversight of police departments in the United States began in the 1970s, with citizen oversight in some form established in 80% of the country’s 50 largest cities and in more than 100 municipalities. Efforts to create external or citizen oversight of the police have traditionally been fueled by public concerns that exclusively internal mechanisms to investigate and track police misconduct have not always resulted in unbiased, thorough, and timely investigations of citizen complaints of police misconduct. Proponents of enhanced civilian oversight believe that, even where internal processes have been adequate, police agencies benefit by the increasing scrutiny and transparency citizen oversight provides.
While some in the field may not freely acknowledge it, the code of silence amongst staff is alive and well in corrections. This unwritten and often unspoken rule, while meant to protect, can often result in irreparable damage to individual careers as well as the reputation of an entire facility and department.
This is a transcript of a speech given by Anne Owers, Chief Inspector of Prisons in Great Britain, in 2001 to a conference of the Commission on Safety in America’s Prisons. Ms. Owers is Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Prisons in Britain.