Who counts as “security staff” for purposes of the minimum staffing ratio Standard for secure juvenile facilities?

The Standards provide, inter alia, that [e]ach secure juvenile facility shall maintain staff ratios of a minimum of 1:8 during resident waking hours and 1:16 during resident sleeping hours, except during limited and discreet exigent circumstances…” 28 C.F.R. § 115.313(c). Only security staff shall be included in these ratios. Id.

The Standards define “security staff” as employees primarily responsible for the supervision and control of… residents in housing units, recreational areas, dining areas, and other program areas of the facility. 28 C.F.R. § 115.5. This definition is intended to approximate the manner in which the term “direct-care staff” is typically used by many juvenile facilities.

Typically, only direct-care staff will count in the minimum mandatory ratios. Direct-care staff supervisors may generally be counted within the minimum ratios to the extent they are presently assigned to primarily or exclusively supervise residents.

Other persons whose duties involve supervision and control of residents for a portion of the day may count towards these ratios while they are actively supervising and controlling residents, assuming that they have received appropriate training. Appropriate training generally includes training on the supervision and control of delinquent youth including, among other things, verbal de-escalation techniques, age-appropriate defensive tactics, and crisis intervention.

For example, a teacher who has received appropriate training may be included in the ratio during the time in which he or she is leading a class, as opposed to preparing a lesson plan. Similarly, a warden or other facility management official will count toward the ratio during the periods of the day when he or she is supervising residents rather than engaging in administrative activities.

Social workers, case managers, clinical staff, and administrative support staff will generally not count toward the minimum staffing ratios, except in circumstances in which they are supervising or controlling a group of residents, and only then if they have received appropriate training.

Contractors and volunteers (who have received a criminal records background check) may count to the extent that their responsibilities and training otherwise qualify.

Staffing Ratio