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LIBRARY : RESOURCES: Training Materials

Tools such as training materials, handbooks, policy development toolkits, and a list of resources for survivors.
01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Investigating Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

This module is concerned with investigating cases of sexual abuse.  Before investigations even begin however, it is imperative to have a clearly defined zero tolerance policy for staff sexual misconduct as well as a sound investigative policy. This learning unit covers foundations of successful investigations, and explains why some investigations fail.  Appropriate investigative techniques are laid out, as are factors to take into consideration during the investigative process. Of particular relevance are Garrity rights which protect public employees from being compelled to incriminate themselves during investigatory interviews conducted by their employers.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Legal Liability

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

This module deals with liability as it concerns sexual assault of juveniles in correctional facilities. There are four types of liability municipal, official, individual, and personal. It is important to note that corrections officials are personally liable for staff misconduct.  They can be held liable for failure to train, and supervise staff in a responsible manner.  They can also be held liable if they fail to investigate allegations of sexual misconduct. If corrections staff are deemed by a court to be “deliberately indifferent” to inmate vulnerability, they are held legally liable.  This lesson looks at a number of court cases, and legal precedents that have come to define the terms and limits of liability in juvenile correction facilities.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Management and Operational Practices

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

Management and operational practices are important because they have a direct influence on conduct and misconduct as it occurs in institutional settings. The application of uniform practices and procedures affect attitudes, and behaviors of juveniles and staff. Important aspects of successful application of managerial and operational practices include clearly defined expectations, mandatory reporting (of incidents), comprehensive investigations of any and all allegations, and proficient training of staff and juveniles alike.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Managing Vulnerable Youth in Custody

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

When working with youth, it is important to understand that juveniles have different communications styles, levels of maturity, and emotional needs. Youth who may be particularly vulnerable to assault may have been previously victimized, have limited experience with institutionalization, be developmentally disabled,  mentally ill, gay/transgendered, have limited language ability, or be hearing impaired. Staff should know the juveniles who they are responsible for, and be aware of their level of social development, and potential vulnerabilities.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Medical and Mental Health Care

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

In this module, common reactions to sexual abuse, medical and public health repercussions and mandatory reporting statues are covered.  Adolescents are generally more vulnerable to physiological reactions to stress than adults.  Thus, their response to trauma will be distinct.  Three primary modes of response to trauma are emotional, cognitive and behavioral.  All staff should be trained in trauma response, and be adept at recognizing signs of trauma.

Physical trauma is another important issue of concern in cases of sexual assault.  It is imperative to engage medical and mental health care providers under such circumstances. There is potential for impact on public health in the form of public exposure to HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore any youth involved in a sexual assault should be examined by a health care provider.

 The requirements of mandatory reporting statutes compel responsible adult parties to inform appropriate authorities in the event of an assault. Statues may vary from state to state.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Policy Development

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

During this module, the composition of effective policy will be considered.  Emphasis on decisions related to the design and implementation of effective policy are given consideration. It is essential to maintain a written policy that implements PREA guidelines. Such a policy should be comprehensive.  Institutional procedures will follow from these policy guidelines.  Staff and juvenile residents must be trained in, and be made aware of all policy guidelines. In order to maintain effective and up to date policies, consistent evaluation and revision is necessary. 

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: PREA Overview

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

Module 2 involves an over-view of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003.  The lesson will underline the function of PREA, acquaint participants with the major sections of the law, address challenges to implementation, and look at the present situation with regard to PREA standards.  Of particular relevance is understanding PREA as it concerns juvenile offenders.  The prevalence of sexual assault in juvenile facilities is highlighted by means of examining a survey youth offenders concerning sexual violence at juvenile facilities. Data from juvenile and adult facilities is compared. The findings and recommendations of an institutional review panel, as well as the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission are presented. Suggestions for maintaining compliance with PREA standards are presented.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Prosecuting Sexual Assault on Youth in Custody

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

Module 15 discusses building cases against defendants accused of sexual assault. Child sexual abuse cases are difficult to prosecute for a variety of reasons, especially when the accuser has a record of delinquency.  Issues of credibility and a lack of physical evidence make such cases problematic form a prosecutor’s point of view. Prosecutors need to have reliable evidence to prove their cases. The lesson concludes with a group discussion on PREA standards and practices.

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: Sexuality

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

Module 4 is concerned with human sexuality. While it is not customary to discuss this topic in corrections classes, it is necessary to address this subject matter in dealing with the issue sexual abuse.  Human sexuality concerns issues of sex, gender, sexuality and the act of sex.  These terms are discussed and defined clearly in this module. Terms related to gender include sexual orientation, gender identity, homosexual, transgender, bisexual, heterosexual, transsexual, and transvestite.  Terms involving sexual orientation include gay, lesbian, trans-gendered, and intersex.

 Phases of healthy sexual development are segregated according to age appropriate development.  These include ages, 1-5, 6-9, 10-12, and 13-18. These stages are discussed in reference to what an individual at a given stage of development is expected to know, as well as what they are (generally) able to do regarding their personal development.

Appropriate policies regarding sexual behaviors of incarcerated youth are discussed. Although prohibition against any and all sexual activity conflicts with normal adolescent development, it is important for each facility to maintain clear and sensible boundaries. Correctional staff at juvenile facilities should be aware of the history and tendencies of each juvenile under their supervision.  Staff should also watch for “red flags” in the behavior of their detainees. All staff should undergo background checks prior to employment. A clear policy defining “sexual harassment” must be defined and backed up with consistent enforcement.

There are special concerns in dealing with sexual minorities (IE) GLBTQ juveniles. These include homophobia, hate crimes, and an increased suicide risk. All institutions should maintain, and enforce policies against homophonic comments, and be sensitive in responding to same-sex relationships.

 The module concludes with a group discussion of “Why Understanding Sexuality is Important in this Context”

01 Jan 2010

Addressing Sexual Abuse of Youth in Custody Curriculum: State Laws

Authors: NIC/WCL Project on Addressing Prison Rape

Module 8 is concerned with potential legal responses to sexual assault of juveniles in custody. Potential legal responses encompass several possible organizational responses.  The policy of the corrections agency in question is the first stratum of intervention.  Depending on the severity of the infraction, state law, and thus state legal agencies are the next potential agents of intervention.  The Federal Bureau of Justice Statistics may become involved if the incident represents a violation of PREA.  There are a range of potential legal consequences related to sexual assault including criminal, civil, or administrative penalties. This continuum will correlate to the type and severity of sexual activity involved.

The module concludes with a survey of all 50 states regarding legislation passed in each state concerning adult and juvenile sexual assault in detention facilities.

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